There is a lot of buzz going around regarding cannabis as a cancer cure. This is inaccurate from a medical standpoint. Cannabis does not cure cancer, cannabinoids contained within cannabis as well as your own endocannabinoids kill cancer cells. There is a hard distinction between what is considered a cure and what is considered a treatment.  

 

You can use cannabinoids as a treatment to kill off cancer cells, but the patient must make lifestyle changes (i.e., live healthier, avoid exposure to carcinogens, stop smoking tobacco, eat healthier, etc.) in order to ensure that the cancer does not come back.


With that said, there are 4 mechanisms by which cannabinoids kill cancer cells:


Mechanisms through which Cannabinoids in Cannabis Kills Cancer Cells.


  • Anti-Proliferative - Prevents cancer cells from reproducing.

  • Anti-Angiogenic - Prevents formation of new blood vessels needed by the tumor to grow.

  • Antimetastatic - Prevents cancer cells from spreading to other organs.

  • Apoptotic - Causes cancer cells to die. When cannabinoids bind to the receptors of a cancer cell, a compound known as ceramide is produced which signals the cancer cell to shut off it’s own mitochondria, causing the cancer cell to die.


This is confirmed in in vitro (studies in cell cultures in petri dishes) and in vivo (studies in living animal models including but not limited to: rats, guinea pigs, monkeys, apes, even horses). Unfortunately we still need double blind controlled clinical trials; this is illegal at the Federal level.


Scientists throughout the world are trying to understand fully how these mechanisms function, and this involves mapping out and understanding the Endocannabinoid System; not just for  cancer, but for all of the various therapies possible with this emerging field of study. The main scientists behind these researches involve but are obviously not limited to: Dr Raphael Mechoulam (Israel), Dr Manuel Guzman (Spain), Dr Vincenzo De Marzo (Italy), Dr Lester Greenspoon (Harvard University), Professor Bob Melamede (University of Colorado), Dr Donald Abrams (San Francisco General Hospital), Dr Tod Mikuriya (deceased).


At the end of this article is a comprehensive list of medical research over the past 40 years surrounding cannabis and the following 7 cancers: Breast Cancer, Colon and Colorectal Cancers, Gliomas, Leukemia, Lung Cancer, Lymphomas, and Prostate Cancers.


The very first Cannabis Cancer study was done in 1975 on Leukemia in mice models and was published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute as “Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids” by Munson, et al.


Utilizing Cannabinoids to Treat Cancer

It must first and foremost be stressed that what we can recommend as medical cannabis consultants cannot override what the patient’s primary doctor says. Cannabis should also be used as an adjunctive medicine (to be combined with what the doctor is prescribing or recommending) and not as a replacement.


Cannabis can be used as a multifaceted approach to cancer but has and can only be professionally recommended as a treatment for the symptoms of cancer - nausea, appetite loss, weight loss, pain, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Marinol (Dronabinol) and Nabilone (Cesamet) are two synthetic cannabinoids mimicking THC that have been approved by the FDA. The latter was approved as a schedule II drug in 1985. None of the synthetic cannabinoids currently on the market are accompanied by the valuable terpenoids produced by the cannabis plant. It should be noted, however, that Sativex (Nabiximols) is a plant derived oral spray that has been approved in the UK (by GW Pharmaceuticals) for the purposes of treating pain, spasticity, and an overactive bladder in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients.


Synthetic cannabinoids (marinol and nabilone) have been used in conjunction with chemotherapy over the past 30 years with mixed results.


Utilizing the Cannabis Plant to Treat and Potentially Beat Cancer

Knowing what we know now of the individual compounds contained in the cannabis plant - the various properties of the cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBN), the terpenoids, and how the entourage effect works, it becomes increasingly evident that the cannabis plant may be far more effective at treating cancer than we had thought. Successful case studies and medical research are finding more and more that this plant, which is remarkably non-toxic, can .significantly aid with not just improving the quality of life for a cancer patient, but with potentially saving it.  


In general, scientific studies have shown that natural cannabis may be quite useful for treating various kinds of cancers for the following reasons: killing cancer cells, reducing possible inflammations caused by the cancer, significantly reducing pain, protecting from possible nerve damage caused by the cancer, helping to regulate blood flow should the cancer cause complications with this, acting as an immunosuppressant in the case of related cancers, helping to combat depression, helping to reduce anxiety, helping to combat insomnia, assisting with one’s appetite, helping to reduce nausea.



Beneficial Cannabinoids and Terpenoids Useful for Treating Various Cancers:

The cannabis plant offers a plethora of therapeutic benefits and contains cannabinoids and terpenoid compounds that may be useful in the treatment of various cancers and their debilitating symptoms. The following list denotes which cannabinoids and terpenoids work synergistically with each other for possible therapeutic benefit:










Rick Simpson’s Oil/Full Extract Oil

There are numerous case studies and success stories involving Rick Simpson’s oil, a crude and simple but effective extraction of the cannabis plant’s trichomes and cannabinoids. These oils are made using a grain alcohol to extract the medicine. The alcohol is then typically boiled off leaving a thick tarish oil (unfortunately many of the valuable terpenoids are also lost in the creation of the oil, but it is still an effective way to consume THC and even CBD). More information about Rick Simpson can be found on pheonixtears.ca/  and the documentary “Run From the Cure”. Credit should be given here as this documentary has helped to spark the conversation of cannabis as a cancer cure in the public eye. The oil is typically very potent when made. Unfortunately the medical and scientific community does not currently recognize these oils as official medications for the treatment of cancer.


Elemental Wellness typically carries these oils but it is not always guaranteed to be in stock.



The Reality of Cannabis and Cancer

Cannabis has been studied for the treatment of cancer for the past 40 years and there are volumes of medical and scientific literature calling for further research, double blind clinical trials, and for the rescheduling of cannabis as a drug. As more research is done and as more individual case studies/success stories come forward, it is going to be increasingly hard for society to continue to turn a blind eye on this powerful medicine.


Incorporating cannabis into the medical arsenal for combatting cancer is something that we should hope to see in the future - our experiences as consultants allow us to see firsthand the success stories, the survivors, and the real patients that have made the courageous choice to try an alternative approach. There is daily proof of the medical efficacy of this plant, and it is seen in every consultation at the counter - not just for cancer, but for every ailment that we come across.  




Cannabis and Cancer Medical Studies:

Breast

Disease Modification of Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Remodeling by Cannabinoid 2 Receptor Agonists

Lozano-Ondoua, Alysia, et al.

Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2012 Dec 18, 28(1): 92-107 (Full).

Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration

Takeda, Shuso, et al.

Toxicology Letters. 2012 Nov 15, 214(3): 314-319 (abstract).

Cannabinoids: A new hope for breast cancer therapy?

Caffarel, Maria M, et al.

Cancer Treatment Reviews. 2012 Nov, 38(7): 911-918 (abstract).

Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy

Shrivastava, Ashutosh, et al.

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2011, 10: 1161-1172 (Full).

Crosstalk between Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 and Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 in Modulating Breast Cancer Growth and Invasion

Nasser, Mohd W, et al.

PLoS ONE. 2011 Sep, 6(9) (Full online article).

Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis

McAllister, Sean D, et al.

Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 2011 Aug, 129(1): 37-47 (abstract).

Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer

Qamri, Zahida, et al.

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2009 Nov 3, 8: 3117-3129 (Full).

JunD is involved in the antiproliferative effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human breast cancer cells

Caffarel, M M, et al.

Oncogene. 2008, 27: 5033-5044 (Full).

Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits 17β-Estradiol-induced Proliferation and Fails to Activate Androgen and Estrogen Receptors in MCF7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Von Bueren, A.O., et al.

Anticancer Research. 2008, 28: 85-90 (Full).

Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells

McAllister, Sean D, et al.

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2007, 6: 2921-2927 (Full).

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Cdc2 Regulation

Caffarel, Maria M, et al.

Cancer Research. 2006 Jul 1, 66: 6615-6621 (Full).

Anandamide inhibits Cdk2 and activates Chk1 leading to cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells

Laezza, Chiara, et al.

FEBS Letters. 2006 Nov 13, 580(26): 6076-6082 (Full).

Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma

Ligresti, Alessia, et al.

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2006, 318(3): 1375-1387 (Full).

Suppression of Nerve Growth Factor Trk Receptors and Prolactin Receptors by Endocannabinoids Leads to Inhibition of Human Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation

Melck, Dominique, et al.

Endocrinology. 2000, 141(1): 118-126 (Full).

Involvement of the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway and of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the anti-proliferative effects of anandamide in human breast cancer cells

Melck, Dominique, et al.

FEBS Letters. 1999 Dec 17, 463(3): 235-240 (Full).

The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation

De Petrocellis, Luciano, et al.

Proceedings of the National Academy Sciences of the United States of America. 1998 Jul 7, 95(14): 8375-8380 (Full).



Colon/Colorectal

Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer

Aviello, Gabriella, et al.

Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2012 Aug, 90(8): 925-934 (abstract).

Induction of Apoptosis by Cannabinoids in Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells Is Phosphatase Dependent

Sreevalsan, Sandeep, et al.

Anticancer Research. 2011, 31: 3799-3808 (Full).

High Tumour Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Immunoreactivity Negatively Impacts Disease-Specific Survival in State II Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer

Gustafsson, Sofia B, et al.

PLOS ONE. 2011 Aug 25, e0023003 (Full online article).

Concerted Action of CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor and Deleted in Colorectal Cancer in Axon Guidance

Argaw, Anteneh, et al.

The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011 Jan 26, 31(4): 1489-1499 (Full).

Effects of Anandamide on Polyamine Levels and Cell Growth in Human Colon Cancer Cells

Linsalata, Michele, et al.

Anticancer Research. 2010, 30: 2583-2590 (Full).

Induction of p53-independent apoptosis by a novel synthetic hexahydrocannabinol analog is mediated via Sp1-dependant NSAID-activated gene-1 in colon cancer cells

Thapa, Dinesh, et al.

Biochemical Pharmacology. 2010 Jul 1, 80(1): 62-71 (abstract).

The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces COX-2-dependent cell death in apoptosis-resistant colon cancer cells

Greenhough, Pastos, et al.

International Journal of Oncology. 2010 Jul, 37(1): 187-193 (abstract).

Rimonobant inhibits human colon cancer cell growth and reduces the formation of precancerous lesions in the mouse colon

Santoro, Antonietta, et al.
International Journal of Cancer. 2009, 125: 996-1003 (Full).

Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis through Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Mediated Ceramide De Novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells

Cianchi, Fabio, et al.

Clinical Cancer Research. 2008, 14: 7691-7700 (Full).

Estrogenic induction of cannabinoid CB1 receptor in human colon cancer cell lines

Notarnicola, Maria, et al.

Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008, 43(1): 66-72 (abstract).

The cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT survival signalling and induces BAD-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells

Greenhough, Alexander, et al.

International Journal of Cancer. 2007, 121: 2172-2180 (Full).

A Cannabinoid Anticancer Quinon, HU-331, Is More Potent and Less Cardiotoxic Than Doxorubicin: A Comparative in Vivo Study

Kogan, Natalya M, et al.

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2007, 322(2): 646-653 (Full)

The cannabinoid CB2 receptor: a good friend in the gut

Izzo, AA, et al.

Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2007, 19: 704-708 (Full).

Involvement of cannabinoid receptors in inflammatory hypersensitivity to colonic distension in rats

Sanson, M, et al.

Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2006, 18: 949-956 (Full).

Cannabinoids and cancer: potential for colorectal cancer therapy

Patsos, HA, et al.

Biochemical Society Transactions. 2005, 33(4): 712-714 (Full).

The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, induces cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells: a possible role for cyclooxygenase 2

Pastos, HA, et al.

GUT. 2005, 54: 1741-1750 (Full).

Differential Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors in the Human Colon: Cannabinoids Promote Epithelial Wound Healing

Wright, Karen, et al.

Gastroenterology. 2005 Aug, 129(2): 437-453 (abstract).

Possible endocannabinoid control of colorectal cancer growth

Ligresti, Alessia, et al.

Gastroenterology. 2003 Sep, 125(3): 677-687 (abstract).

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic for Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy: A Comparison with Prochlorperazine and a Placebo

Frytak, Stephen et al.

Annals of Internal Medicine. 1979 Dec 1, 91(6): 825-830 (abstract).



Glioma

Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas

Rocha, Francisco Carlos Machado, et al.

Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 2014 Jan, 116(1): 11-24 (abstract).

The intersection between cannabis and cancer in the United States

Bowles, Daniel W, et al.

Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2012 Jul, 83(1): 1-10 (abstract).

Cannabidiol Enhances the Inhibitory Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Survival

Marcu, Jahan P, et al.

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2010 Jan 12, 9: 180-189 (Full).

Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells

Salazar, Maria, et al.

Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2009 May 1, 119(5): 1359-1372 (Full).

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression by downregulation of E2F1 in human glioblastoma multiforme cells

Galanti, Gil, et al.

Acta Oncologica. 2008, 47: 1062-1070 (Full).

High concentrations of cannabinoids activate apoptosis in human U373MG glioma cells

Widmer, M, et al.

Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2008 Nov 1, 86(14): 3212-3220 (abstract).

Cannabinoids Inhibit Glioma Cell Invasion by Down-regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression

Blazquez, Cristina, et al.

Cancer Research. 2008, 68: 1945-1952 (Full).

Cannabinoids Induce Glioma Stem-like Cell Differentiation and Inhibit Gliomagenesis

Aguado, Tania, et al.

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007 Mar 2, 282(9): 6854-6862 (Full).

Cannabinoids and Gliomas

Velasco, Guillermo, et al.

Molecular Neurobiology. 2007 Apr, 36(1): 60-67 (abstract).

A pilot clinical study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

Guzman, M, et al.

British Journal of Cancer. 2006, 95: 197-203 (Full).

Cannabinoids: potential antitumoral agents?

Guzman, Manuel

Cannabinoids. 2006, 1(2): 15-17 (Full).

The non-psychoactive cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells

Massi, P, et al.

Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS. 2006 Sep, 63(17): 2057-2066 (abstract).

Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism

Vaccani, Angelo, et al.

British Journal of Pharmacology. 2005, 144: 1032-1036 (Full).

Cannabinoids selectively inhibit proliferation and induce death of cultured human glioblastoma multiforme cells

McAllister, Sean D, et al.

Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 2005 Aug, 74(1): 31-40 (abstract).

Hypothesis: cannabinoid therapy for the treatment of gliomas?

Velasco, Guillermo, et al.

Neuropharmacology. 2004 Sep, 47(3): 315-323 (abstract).

Cannabinoids Inhibit the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Pathway in Gliomas

Blazquez, Cristina, et al.

Cancer Research. 2004, 64: 5617-5623 (Full).

Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines

Massi, Paola, et al.

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2004, 308(3): 838-845 (Full).

Inhibition of Glioma Growth in Vivo by Selective Activation of the CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor

Sanchez, Cristina, et al.

Cancer Research. 2001, 61: 5784-5789 (Full).

Inhibition of Rat C6 Glioma Cell Proliferation by Endogenous and Synthetic Cannabinoids. Relative Involvement of Cannabinoid and Vanilloid Receptors

Jacobsson, Stig, et al.

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2001 Dec, 299(3): 951-959 (Full).

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells

Sanchez, Cristina, et al.

FEBS Letters. 1998, 436: 6-10 (Full).

Cannabinoids inhibit N-type calcium channels in neuroblastoma-glioma cells

Mackie, Ken, et al.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 1992 May, 89: 3825-3829 (Full).


Leukemia

Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression

Rieder, Sadiye Armacaoglu, et al.

Immunobiology. 2010 Aug, 215(8): 598-605 (abstract).

Enhancing the in vitro cytotoxic activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in leukemic cells through a combinatorial approach  

Liu, Wai M, et al.

Leukemia & Lymphoma. 2008, 49(9): 1800-1809 (abstract).

Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22PHOX and NOX4 Expression

McKallip, Robert J, et al.

Molecular Pharmacology. 2006 Sep, 70(3): 897-908 (Full).

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Apoptosis in Jurkat Leukemia T Cells is Regulated by Translocation of Bad to Mitochondria

Jia, Wentao, et al.

Molecular Cancer Research. 2006 Aug, 4: 549 (Full).

Targeting cannabinoid receptors to treat leukemia: Role of cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells

Lombard, Catherine, et al.

Leukemia Research. 2005 Aug, 29(8): 915-922 (abstract).

Cannabis-induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cell lines: the role of the cannabinoid receptors and the MAPK pathway

Powles, Thomas, et al.

Blood. 2005 Feb 1, 105(3): 1214-1221 (Full).

2-Arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, induces the migration of EoL-1 human eosinophilic leukemia cells and human peripheral blood eosinophils

Oka, Saori, et al.

Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2004 Nov, 76(5): 1002-1009 (Full).

y-Irradiation Enhances Apoptosis Induced by Cannabidiol, a Non-psychotropic Cannabinoid, in Cultured HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells

Gallily, Ruth, et al.

Leukemia & Lymphoma. 2003, 44(10): 1767-1773 (abstract).

Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease

McKallip, Robert J, et al.

Blood. 2002 Jul 15, 100(2): 627-634 (Full).

The Peripheral Cannabinoid Receptor, Cb2, in Retrovirally-Induced Leukemic Transformation and Normal Hematopoiesis

Valk, Peter J M, et al.

Leukemia & Lymphoma. 1998, 32(1-2): 29-43 (abstract).

Expression of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors in human immune tissues and leukocyte subpopulations

Galiegue, Sylvaine, et al.

European Journal of Biochemistry. 1995, 232: 54-61 (Full).

Cannabinoid-receptor expression in human leukocytes

Bouaboula, Monsif, et al.

European Journal of Biochemistry. 1993 Feb 22, 214(1): 173-180 (Full).

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

Murison, Gerald, et al.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 1987 Aug, 84: 5414-5418 (Full).

The Inhibition of DNA Synthesis by Cannabinoids

Carchman, RA, et al.

Cancer Research. 1976, 36: 95-100 (Full).

Effects of cannabinoids on L1210 murine leukemia. 1. Inhibition of DNA synthesis.

Tucker, AN, et al.

Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology. 1977 Aug, 4: 703-714 (abstract).

Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids

Munson, AE, et al.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1975 Sep, 55(3): 597-602 (abstract).


Lung

COX-2 and PPAR-ᵞ Confer Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer Cells

Ramer, Robert, et al.

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2013, 12: 69-82 (Full).

Anti-proliferative and Anti-angiogenic Effects of CB2R Agonist (JWH-133) in Non-small Lung Cancer Cells (A549) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: an in Vitro Investigation

Vidinsky, B, et al.

Folia Biologica. 2012, 58: 75-80 (Full).

Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1

Ramer, Robert, et al.

The FASEB Journal. 2012 Apr, 26: 1535-1548 (Full).

Cannabinoid Receptors, CB1 and CB2, as Novel Targets for Inhibition of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Growth and Metastasis

Preet, Anju, et al.

Cancer Prevention Research. 2011 Jan, 4(1): 65-75 (Full).

Decrease of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 May Contribute to the Anti-Invasive Action of Cannabidiol on Human Lung Cancer Cells

Ramer, Robert, et al.

Pharmaceutical Research. 2010 Oct, 27(10): 2162-2174 (abstract).

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System for the Treatment of Cancer - A Practical View

Fowler, J, et al.

Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2010 Jun, 10(8): 814-827 (abstract).

A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Marijuana Use and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Liang, Caihua, et al.

Cancer Prevention Research. 2009, 2: 759-768 (Full).

Endocannabinoid system modulation in cancer biology and therapy

Pisanti, Simona, et al.

Pharmacological Research. 2009 Aug, 60(2): 107-116 (abstract).

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo

Preet, A, et al.

Oncogene. 2008, 27: 339-346 (Full).

Inhibition of Cancer Cell Invasion by Cannabinoids via Increased Expression of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1

Ramer, Robert, et al.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2008, 100: 59-69 (Full).

Cannabinoid receptor agonists are mitochondrial inhibitors: A unified hypothesis of how cannabinoids modulate mitochondrial function and induce cell death

Athanasiou, Andriani, et al.

Biochemical and Biophysical Communications. 2007 Dec 7, 364(1): 131-137 (abstract).

The Association Between Marijuana Smoking and Lung Cancer

Mehra, Reena, et al.

JAMA Internal Medicine. 2006 Jul 10, 166(13): 1359-1367 (Full).

Methanandamide increases COX-2 expression and tumor growth in murine lung cancer

Gardner, Brian, et al.

The FASEB Journal. 2003 Nov, 17: 2157-2159 (Full).

Inhibitory effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation on tumor growth and metastatic spreading: actions on signals involved in angiogenesis and metastasis

Portella, Giuseppe, et al.

The FASEB Journal. 2003 Sep, 17: 1771-1773 (Full).

Control of the cell survival/death decision by cannabinoids

Guzman, Manuel, et al.

Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2001 Jan, 78(11): 613-625 (abstract).

Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Antitumor Immunity by a CB2 Receptor-Mediated, Cytokine-Dependent Pathway

Zhu, Li X, et al.

The Journal of Immunology. 2000, 165: 373-380 (Full).

Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and its Defenses against Infection and Cancer

Tashkin, Donald P, et al.

School Psychology International. 1999 Feb, 20(1): 23-37 (abstract).

Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy.

Ahmedzai, S, et al.

British Journal of Cancer. 1983, 48: 657-663 (Full).

The Inhibition of DNA Synthesis by Cannabinoids

Carchman, RA, et al.

Cancer Research. 1976, 36: 95-100 (Full).



Lymphoma

Cannabinoid-associated cell death mechanisms in tumor models (Review)

Calvaruso, Giuseppe, et al.

International Journal of Oncology. 2012 May 14, 41(2): 407-413 (Full)

Potentiation of Cannabinoid-Induced Cytotoxicity in Mantle Cell Lymphoma through Modulation of Ceramide Metabolism

Gustafsson, Kristin, et al.

Molecular Cancer Research. 2009 Jul 7, 1086 (Full online article).

Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Growth inhibition by receptor activation

Gustafsson, Kristin, et al.

International Journal of Cancer. 2008 Sep 1, 123(5): 1025-1033 (Full).

The expression of the Peripheral Cannabinoid receptor on cells of the immune system and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas

Rayman, Nazik, et al.

Leukemia & Lymphoma. 2007, 48(7): 1389-1399 (abstract).

Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by R(+)-Methanandamide and Win55,212-2 Is Associated with Ceramide Accumulation and p38 Activation in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

Gustafsson, Kristin, et al.

Molecular Pharmacology. 2006 Nov, 70(5): 1612-1620 (Full).

Cannabinoid receptor ligands mediate growth inhibition and cell death in mantle cell lymphoma

Flygare, Jenny, et al.

FEBS Letters. 2005 Dec 19, 579(30): 6885-6889 (Full).

Distinct Expression Profiles of the Peripheral Cannabinoid Receptor in Lymphoid Tissues Depending on Receptor Activation Status

Rayman, Nazik, et al.

The Journal of Immunology. 2004 Feb 15, 172(4): 2111-2117 (Full).

High level of cannabinoid receptor 1, absence of regulator of G protein signalling 13 and differential expression of Cyclin D1 in mantle cell lymphoma

Islam, T.C., et al.

Leukemia. 2003, 17: 1880-1890 (Full).

Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease

McKallip, Robert J, et al.

Blood. 2002 Jul 15, 100(2): 627-634 (Full).




Prostate

Towards the use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids for prostate cancer

Pacher, Pal, et al.

British Journal of Pharmacology. 2013, 168: 76-78 (Full).

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (CB1) Activation Inhibits Small GTPase RhoA Activity and Regulates Motility of Prostate Carcinoma Cells

Nithipatikom, Kasem, et al.

Endocrinology. 2012 Jan, 153(1): 29-41 (Full).

The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications

Ramos, Juan A, et al.

Indian Journal of Urology. 2012 Mar, 28(1): 9-14 (Full).

Induction of Apoptosis by Cannabinoids in Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells Is Phosphatase Dependent

Sreevalasan, Sandeep, et al.

Anticancer Research: International Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2011, 31: 3799-3808 (Full).

The endocannabinoid system in prostate cancer

Diaz-Laviada, Ines, et al.

Nature Reviews Urology. 2011 Oct, 8: 553-561 (abstract).

Cannabinoid receptor-dependent and -independent anti-proliferative effects of omega-3 ethanolamides in androgen receptor-positive and -negative prostate cancer cell lines

Browin, Iain, et al.

Carcinogenesis. 2010, 31(9): 1584-1591 (Full).

Tumour Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor and Phosphorylated Epidermal Factor Receptor Expression Are Additive Prognostic Markers for Prostate Cancer

Fowler, Christopher, et al.

PLOS One. 2010 Dec, 5(12) (Full online article).

The cannabinoid R(+)methanandamide induces IL-6 secretion by prostate cancer PC3 cells

Olea-Herrero, Nuria, et al.

Journal of Immunotoxicology. 2009 Dec, 6(4): 249-256 (abstract).

Inhibition of human tumour prostate PC-3 cell growth by cannabinoids R(+)-Methanandamide and JWH-015: Involvement of CB2

Olea-Herrero, N, et al.

British Journal of Cancer. 2009, 101: 940-950 (Full).

Increased expressions of cannabinoid receptor-1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 in human prostate carcinoma

Czifra, Gabriella, et al.

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 2009 Apr, 135(4): 507-514 (abstract).

Plant-Derived Cannabinoids Modulate the Activity of Transient Receptor Potential Channels of Ankyrin Type-1 and Melastatin Type-8

De Petrocellis, Luciano, et al.

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2008, 325(3): 1007-1015 (Full).

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